Specifications and How it Works Stone Crusher Machine

Stone crusher machine is industrial or mining tool that is often used to soften or grind or crush stone can say quite large and also marble, aluminum, asphalt, iron, coal, plastics, and so on. This machine is capable of destroying the material that has a hard texture that with this machine easier to crush rock tersebut.dan when in view the development of the times, certainly a lot of things given and also on offer from the many companies that make these stone-crushing machine. and to kind of - kind of the image of the rock breaking machine is:

Simlpe Stone Crusher Pic By Google

Stone crusher can be divided based on the workings of the instrument. In destroying the material, especially rock. Gyratory, jaw crusher, roll crusher and crusher is working to put pressure on the rock. While the impact crusher works crush rocks with a high speed collision. Generally jaw crusher is used as primary crusher whereas other types of products are used as secondary crusher if the desired results have not correspond to the primary crusher. 

Specifications Of Stone Crusher Machine

  1. Jaw Crusher. This species is the most important types used by the mining and chemical industries. Strength and pressure of the tool is also very high, reaching 320 MPa. Every 8 hours of this tool is capable of producing up to ten cubic for the small size. The price is in the range of $ 6126.05  depending on the size as well.
  2. Gratory. The Company will provide a price when we contacted the company and by the way chat.
  3. Roll Crusher. This crusher works by rotary roller. Her rpm speed somewhat lower than the impact crusher which is about 300 rpm. With more power production. The engine work is strongly influenced by the type and quality of materials / materials, which will be used roller gear, fly wheel, size shafts. All of this must be tailored to the target amount of production and raw materials. Generally roll crusher is used to crush material with hardness and ductility are somewhat lower as cement, copper ore, limestone, coal, and so on. This tool can not stand alone. He had to get help from other equipment in the previous stage.

How it Works a Simple Stone Crusher Machine


Setting up the tools that we will use and determined how large size rock that we want and the size of the hole size stone crusher.
1. Prepare to be crushed stone machine.
2. Turn on the machine
3. Enter the stone into the tool bit by bit.
4. When inserting a stone into tools seek stone size does not exceed the size of the hole stone-crushing machine.
5. Once the stone is inserted into the tool closes the hole to insert the stone with cover to avoid fractional
stone thrown out tool.
6. Once the crushed stone accommodated in the space provided.
7. For optimal results, it is necessary to note the size of the stones that will be included and the size of the hole in stone crusher machine.

Best regard from Electronic And Mechanic

Keep Your Car In Shape With These Helpful Tips

You may feel frustrated when dealing with your car. You don’t want to have to feel this experience every time. Continue reading to find out how you can deal with any repairs to your car.
You do not need a mechanic every time your car has problems. There are a lot of things that could be fixed very easily. If it is not a very difficult job, attending to the repair yourself could save a considerable amount of money.
Ask a potential mechanic if they have experience with working on your car. If the answer is yes, there is a good chance they will be able to repair your car.
Referrals are your best best when searching for a reputable auto mechanic. Ask around for their recommendations. You can find out great information about prices and level of quality. People can tell you what kind of things they had to deal with and whether the mechanic was honest or not.
Look at the reviews of patronizing. This lets you know how they handle customers and how good they are at solving any problem you may encounter. You can use the information to find a place you’ll feel comfortable giving your money at.
Never leave anything in your car when it is getting repaired. Mechanics may need to take these items out to do the inside of your vehicle and they cannot be held responsible if an item is damaged or missing. You want to remove all the items from your trunk also.
Make sure any mechanic you hire knows about your particular car. If you are unsure, go to the dealer.
Think about using a mechanic who fixes cars in his or her own garage.If they have auto repair experience they can provide quality work, they can typically do jobs for far less cost. You may save hundreds on the cost of money this way.
Look at flashing lights on the dashboard and learn what they mean. These warning lights give you a good indication of when your vehicle needs some maintenance. If you keep ignoring them it’ll make the problem later on.


Don’t buy parts to you that say they’re going to last a lifetime. This is generally just a sneaky way to get more money out of you. One example of this is transmission fluid will last a lifetime. While this does not need to be changed as often as typical fluid, you should still change it every 80,000 miles.
Few people take the time to go over the manual that comes with their car’s instruction manual. You should read over the manual and know what you need to do if a problem comes about. Your manual contains everything you need to know about maintaining your car and doing minor repairs yourself.
It is not uncommon to find out about other problems when they pick up their vehicle from an auto shop. They often try to make it look like you are getting a great deal. Tell them that you’re going to have to talk to them later so that you have to think about it before accepting the deal.
AAA is a good company to look into when you’ve got auto repair. You are going to find discounts on an annual AAA membership if you shop around.
After paying a mechanic to replace an old part on your vehicle with a new one, ask if you can get the old part back. If he won’t, it may be because there was no replacement done whatsoever. This is troublesome and you should tell him about it.
Set an expense limit that you are willing to let the mechanic reach without specific authorization.Don’t let the shop to make any repairs as they want after your drop off your car. Set a dollar amount that they don’t call you by phone first.
Ask people you trust to recommend a good auto mechanic. This is really a great way to locate a good mechanic because you know first hand that they have done good work in the past. It is far better than taking a risk on a mechanic that you don’t know anything about.
Don’t put water where the compartment for windshield wiper compartment. Water can clean your windshield, sure, but that compartment is designed only to hold a special kind of fluid. Check the windshield washer compartment regularly and refill it when you need. Do not delay when the compartment seems to be empty.

Labor Costs

When dealing with auto repair estimates, get them to separate the cost of the parts from the labor costs. This will make things easier when you compare estimates from two shops. The parts should cost about the same, so this will allow you to figure out which one is a better deal in terms of labor costs.
The first obstacle you have to face with your car’s repairs is your mechanic. You never want to enter into business with a mechanic who seems shady. Be watchful for mechanics that talk too fast, dodges your questions and refuses to look you in the eye.
This can prevent your carpet staining from things like slush and slush. These are necessary during those winter seasons or difficult weather patterns.
You should now be better prepared to make decisions when repairing your car. You now stand a better chance of getting repairs made without getting ripped off. Continue on if you’d like to know more on the subject of getting vehicles repaired.
This information served as a great tutorial regarding Electronic And Mechanic. Thankfully, you came to the right place to help you get started with the learning process. Apply the data that you take in from this article to real life.

Car Shopping, How To Do It Right

Car shopping can be a lot of time.There are many cars to check out and just as many things to consider. This is why information is essential to smoothing out the process.Here is some tips that should help you buy a good purchase without hassle.
Search the Internet for great offers.You can literally save thousands by doing an Internet search. After you find a great deal on the car of your dreams, either visit the dealership in person or ask another dealer to get the car on your behalf. If the source isn’t too far away, it’s better to pick it up yourself.
Know what kind of vehicle you are looking for before stepping foot into a dealership. Look online to find what is best for your personal situation. This research will also give you an idea of the price that you should really be paying for the car you’d like to buy.
Don’t ever pay the full price on a car. The dealer isn’t expecting to get that much when they sell the asking price.
Bring a friend on your shopping day. This can be anyone you trust like a parent, a co-worker or a friend.
You don’t want to feel rushed so that you commit to a deal that you are not comfortable with. You should allocate at least an entire afternoon.If time is an issue, don’t hesitate to leave and return later.
Ask your loved ones what they hear. How satisfied are they with their current vehicles? Do they regret buying the decisions they have? What information have they heard about different cars out on the market?
When car shopping, don’t go above a set maximum no matter what you’re getting told by the dealer.
Rent a car in order to test them out. This will give you get a good idea of what it is like to drive.Go on a trip to see how the car stands up to the abuse. This can help you to get a glimpse of what life would be like with the car.

Purchasing a new vehicle can be both frightening and exhausting at the same time.There are places on the Internet that list car prices. This can assist you money and time by narrowing down choices.
You should have a clear idea on the amount of money you can afford. You need to know a monthly budget for your car payments and your insurance. You should look for loans before starting the shopping process.
You might not get the car that is perfect for you. Not having heated seats should not make much of a difference in your driving experience.
If you feel intimidated by a salesman, just walk away. Even if they want to do something to make you stay, leave. Get out of there! There are much better options for you can be spending valuable time.
Don’t buy this next year’s car as soon as it’s released. You generally pay more based on how new the newest model when it has just been released that you would if you waited a bit. Give it a few months to allow the hype can die down later.
For example, if you plan to use the vehicle to travel far to work, look for great gas mileage cars.
This will help you to maximize the price of the new one.
You should test drive the vehicles you buy anything. You need to put the car for awhile. Test as many elements of the car as you can so there are no surprises later.
Look at “hidden” costs involved with buying that car. Different cars can have different fuel efficiencies, maintenance costs, insurance, and insurance costs. Look into what you’ll have to pay for gas, special oil change requirements, and part costs before making a purchase. These are all factors that can make a substantial difference in the total cost of owning the car.
Watch out for lower monthly payments that are too low. It’s easy to become distracted by the need to find a payment that fits your monthly budget.
Think about getting a vehicle. You may be able to get a lease with zero down.
Never appear desperate when dealing a car. They will see you’re desperate and try to pressure-sell you a harder bargain than they would have otherwise.

Tech Drive

A tech drive isn’t sufficient; a “tech drive” is just as important. If you are buying a car with advanced technological features, you need to take the time to familiarize yourself with them before making a purchase. Ask the dealer to set up a tech drive during which you can test the car’s features work well with your electronic devices.
When test driving a vehicle you are interested in, you should take it on the highway and drive on some back streets too so you can test acceleration, brakes and see how it feels. Make U-turns, attempt to park, park and drive up and down hills.This is the only way to get a better feel for how the vehicle operates.
Without the right information and a clear idea of what you need, it’s almost impossible to make smart decisions. Use the ideas within this article to be sure that you wind up with a car you are happy with. They will make the entire experience much better.
Learning all about Electronic And Mechanic is the first step to success. Review this piece often to get a firm grounding. Continue to learn more regarding Electronic And Mechanic in order for you to succeed.

Cleaning Engine Block With Simple Way

Here are tips on how to remove scale on the engine block. for you are the owner of a motorcycle whose engine looks crusty due to dust, oil, sand from the combustion of course very annoyed to see this condition, at least what you need to see a leak of oil in your engine, because the crust on the engine block in the causes of oil mixed with dust or sands, and oil is obtained from the parts that do not fit or imitation spare parts, spare parts consequently you buy are not so strong to withstand the temperature of the engine as a result although in tighten any bolts in the engine block will still be leaking.
Another possibility because when you open a motorcycle engine block you do not clean the oil formerly attached to the blog consequently affected block oil mixed with dust or sand, and raised the one crust attached to block your motorcycle. well now what if this had happened here's how to remove scale on the engine block

Cleaning Engine Block

For the first wash crust engine block using the shampoo you can use shampoo to wash motors do not use shampoo to wash your hair because it will not be effective to clean crust on the engine block.
If your first method does not work you can use soap, this way I often use when I look at my motorcycle engine block no crust, and this scent effective way to ward off the crust, you can use dishwashing soap. The second dish soap is very useful for cleaning the crust on the engine block.

Pic By : Google
For this third way is to stubborn crust, if the above methods you have applied, but no results, you can use the third method. the guarantee of the third method is definitely the source of the crust will be sold out, how to put on a ceramic cleanser, but you must be careful when using this drug. and is not recommended for those of you who had painted the engine block because it will damage the paint on the machine, this technique can only do to the engine block is not painting, to which had already painted the engine block to use the first and second. just how to remove scale on the engine block using the following ceramic drugs do

  • Prepare Drug ceramics, you can buy medicine or cleaning ceramic tile in super market or in the shop building.
  • Once you get ceramic cleaners now is the time to act, first prepare a bucket to pour cleaner or ceramic (pour just enough).
  • Mix with enough hot water and stir well, prepare well toothbrush to reach crust narrow slit or being unreachable.
  • Once you have prepared all immediately rub all machines use a soft brush evenly to slit just use a toothbrush. wait for approximately 10 minutes then it would seem there is foam or froth of white foam.
  • Immediately rub it if you've seen this white foam to help accelerate the clearance on the engine block.
  • Once finished you can rinse the shampoo motors.
  • Once you strip using water to rinse the shampoo is now time to use clean water, do this until it is completely clean and you can see the results will be as clean as the original machine. but if you do not get the changes you can repeat this step until you see that block your machine completely clean.

How to Take Care Car Radiator

For owners of vehicles, especially cars would already be familiar with this one component. Radiator cooling system components and box-shaped finned-fin serves to cool the engine coolant to remove heat into the air using the fan support. No fins on the radiator serves to increase the surface so that it will speed up the process of releasing heat into the air. Over time and the use of high intensity, it is necessary that the execution of maintenance work of the radiator remains optimal. Unfortunately Caring for Radiator often only be checked for leaks and cooling fluid volume. Yet because of the length of use in the cooling system can emerge rust or dirt buildup. If this is the case then the less will affect the cooling process itself. The process is not optimal cooling will impact on the working of the machine, one machine could be overheating. The worst effects of this overheating symptoms cylinder head can become bent, consequently leaking compression and power drop. If it happens so then you only have two options namely replace with new cylinder head or bring it to a turner. For that of the experience such things, the earlier the better to prevent it instead. Maintenance on the radiator ideally every 20 thousand kilometers done flushing.



Treatment aims radiator with bleach to remove rust or scale present in the cooling system. You also can do it at home because the process is quite easy. Before performing flushing the radiator prepared in advance tools and the danger of a screwdriver and radiator flusher. To perform step flushing the radiator is as follows:

How to Take Care Car Radiator

Radiator flush


  • Turn the engine between 2-3 minutes for encrusted dirt could slightly raised. When the engine is too long then the temperature and pressure of water in the system will increase, so it is quite dangerous.
  • Open the radiator cap. To maintain safety then use a damp towel to remove the radiator cap.
  • Open the plug at the bottom of the radiator with the help of a screwdriver to drain the coolant.
  • After draining all the coolant cap back on the plug and pour the radiator flusher.
  • Replace the radiator cap and turn the engine between 2-3 minutes.
  • Make the process 2-5 times with water but, my goal is to flush the radiator flusher along the existing dirt.
  • The latter drain the water in the system and pour the new coolant water.


How to care for a radiator by flushing well above the expected dirt in the radiator and in the other components can be lost so it will expedite the cooling process.

Your Tips About Auto Repair Is Right In The Following Article

Do you have issues that is in need to be corrected on your car? Even if it is not a current problem for you, you understand the stress that it can cause. You may not have known what to do if a problem occurs. How will you tell what is the best option? Read this article to learn everything you with dealing with auto repairs.
This certification guarantees that a mechanic has been tested and has more than two years experience as a mechanic. This tells you have the best mechanic performing maintenance on your automobile.
Don’t take an emergency car kit within your vehicle. You need to have tools in your kit that will allow you to change the battery, charge your battery and put more gas in your tank.
Ask questions about your vehicle. Preventing issues is a great way of saving money annually.
Referrals are a great method for finding an auto mechanic. Ask the people you know for their vehicles to. You can find out great information about the quality of service and the costs. People can tell you know what type of experience they had and whether the person was honest.
Make sure all repair records on file. You want these with you when you go to get repairs done; a great place to store them in the glove compartment for easy access. The auto repair professionals will need to refer to these records. This will allow them assess the issues are quickly.

Pic By : id88db

Unnecessary Repairs

Be wary of unscrupulous mechanics who will do unnecessary repairs to your vehicle. A good mechanic should let you know if they noticed parts that are starting to get worn down and will never perform work without your full approval. Never give your vehicle to a mechanic that preforms unnecessary repairs.
Look out for warning signs that repair mechanics may give off. If they tend to talk in circles or ignore your questions, they may not be the one you want to work with. You should feel like you can trust them, so don’t be afraid to choose another one.
Ask for labor rates and prices before giving the keys to a shop. Some repair shops have details about their rates posted on the walls, so you need to carefully read and ask any questions you have if something doesn’t make sense. You should understand how and why you are being billed by your mechanic. Some stops estimate repair times established by the manufacturers they work with. Some “minor” repairs could take all day according the the estimates of the manufacturer.
Take photos of your entire vehicle before taking it to the shop to get repaired. Some unethical shops strip parts off your vehicle and resell them. You need to be able to document what the vehicle in case your mechanic fails to fix them or makes things worse.
Don’t try to diagnose complex automotive issues. What seems like something small may actually be quite complicated, especially in the newer electric cars and also the newer computerized vehicles. Let an auto repair shops diagnose your vehicle. Let them know what the problem is and the noises you hear, but let them be the ones to diagnose the issue.
It is not uncommon to find out about other problems when collecting a car from an auto shop. This is a tactic used by businesses that can cost you a favor. Tell them that you’re going to have to talk to them later so that you have to think about it before accepting the deal.
Consistency is important when dealing with auto repair world. Stick to a shop that has gained your trust instead of going to multiple places for work. Different shops may give you a different issues with your car. They could charge different amounts that cause you more for the work done.
You can easily do some preventative maintenance such as adding more oil or top up your windshield fluid compartment. It is a myth that these routine maintenance jobs. You should not hesitate to do some repairs yourself, and then you can grease up those hands.
Don’t fix your car right away.Call other shops to see how much you’d pay if you went to them instead. If you find something less expensive, you might owe the shop some diagnostic labor, but take your car somewhere else.
Having written proof can help you decide to file a complaint against the mechanic.
For you to diagnose car problems, you need to be somewhat familiar with its various components. You might even consider taking a class on auto repair if you are unfamiliar with automobile basics.This will enable you to better service your vehicle lasts longer.
Take a little time out to find out all you can about your vehicle and model. You can only be able to sidestep the mechanic if you possess a bit of auto repair knowledge yourself. You will save some money if you’re not paying a lot to fix small things all the time.
The first obstacle you have to face with auto repair. You do not want to avoid any mechanics that give you a mechanic who seems shady. If a mechanic ignores your input, talk quickly or don’t listen to you, leave.
This can prevent your car safe from things like slush and slush. These are a big help during winter seasons or difficult weather patterns.
When you’re getting a car washed, set mats outside and hose them a couple times. Dirt particles can get inside their rubber surfaces and that can cause holes. Holes don’t look good and allow the dirt to have a clear path to the carpet that’s under it.
Solving your car troubles can be as easy as using the advice that you have just read. Of course, you’re going to need to continue getting knowledge about these things. Being knowledgeable about your car can save you money and stress in the long run.
You will initially be confused about the topic of Electronic And Mechanic, simply due to information overload. It may seem like a lot of time to spend, but learning can help this topic become second nature. By applying all you can from this article, your experience will be a good one.

The Basics On How To Get A Good Auto Insurance

Auto insurance policies cover more than your vehicle in the event of an accident as well as other things. It works to protect everyone on the road. You want to feel confident that any insurance policy you need it to. These suggestions are going to help you get the most of your auto insurance.
You need to understand coverage types offered when you are searching for an auto insurance policy. There can be many different situations that come into play when determining the cost of insurance. Bodily injury liability covers legal costs, injury and legal costs resulting from an accident you caused.
When upgrading your car by purchasing extras or replacing parts, be sure to check how much your insurance company will cover if your car is stolen or damaged. Insurance often doesn’t cover these parts separately, only the the worth of your car with these additions, and that may not be too much.
You can purchase insurance beyond the minimum if you so choose. You will have a higher premium with these, but your premium may be more. Uninsured motorist protection is a means to protect yourself from drivers who do not having insurance.
Think long and hard about what type of coverage is needed. There are myriad options out there, but it will not make sense for you to use some of them. If you have a history of accidents, you should include collision coverage in your policy.
Carpooling and public transit can save you money on your insurance costs. Insurance companies appreciate their customers being responsible clients.



When buying auto insurance, get quotes from multiple carriers. Rates vary dramatically from one provider to the next. Get a new quotes every year to ensure you always have the lowest premiums and out-pocket-costs. Make sure these quotes are for the same coverage when you’re comparing rates.

Sports Car

Trade in your sports car for something more moderate vehicle.Insurance companies charge higher rates for sports car tends to be quite expensive. Sports cars are a hot target for thieves, which further raises the cost of insurance.
Insurance rates vary due to the chances of theft or accident, and in general rural areas and suburbs have lower rates than cities.

Insurance Policies

You can often save on auto insurance by obtaining a bundled insurance policies. Try to take part in these offers and insure both your house and your automobile. Make sure to compare the cost of combining your home and decent coverage; in some cases two separate insurance policies is still a better choice.
You really should take this as it can cost you a lot more in insurance premiums. This will also covers you in the unfortunate event that you are hit by an uninsured driver.
Remove any other drivers from your insurance as soon as they stop driving your vehicle anymore. If other drives are on your plan, consider removing them in order to save some money on your premiums.
Many companies give discounts to people who do not drive 7500 miles in a single year. This makes cutting your driving a great option for anyone who wants to save money.

Liability Coverage

It can be difficult to pinpoint the correct amount of auto insurance you actually require. If you own a lot of expensive things, you should buy more liability coverage. If you are responsible for the accident, insufficient liability coverage could drain your assets. It is more prudent to get enough insurance coverage and other personal assets.
100/200/100 level liability coverage is a great thing to include in your auto insurance policy if you have an expensive car.
You can get less expensive car insurance rates by increasing your credit rating. Were you aware that your credit scores?
The lowest rate doesn’t necessarily mean the only thing that should grab your attention when shopping for your car insurance.
Many factors are looked at to determine your auto insurance premiums. Some of these criteria include whether you are married, sex and age. If you are aware of these factors, you can be a much savvier shopper.
Be sure to check your car insurance policy is correct. Accuracy is very important for avoiding claim denials and it can possibly save you money. Is your address listed correctly in the policy? Is the type of vehicle, model and year all correct?

Insurance Premiums

You may be able to find lower your insurance premiums if you relocate to another municipality or state. Insurance premiums and states than others.You may be able to save tons of money on insurance by moving to another city or state.
It is extremely important to know all aspects of your insurance policy. There are several common coverages that fall under the umbrella of auto insurance, such as personal injury and hospital stays. You may have to request optional coverages, know what your company offers.
Make sure to exclude any vehicles you no longer own from your insurance plan immediately after you’ve gotten rid of them.Having insurance on your policy can add up quickly to wasted premium being paid.
One way for men under age 25 to get a discount on insurance rates is through marriage. Married couples can save up to forty percent on insurance costs. If there is a significant other in your life, you might consider popping the question to your significant other.
You have to alert the police if there is a car accident. Police departments have the means of gathering the most relevant facts and what other steps are necessary after an accident. When speaking to the insurance company, having the police on your side is the best possible scenario.
Take this information into consideration and review your policy. You may find that things were not as you thought they were, and you may benefit by rewriting your policy to get the proper amount of coverage to protect you and the other drivers on the road.
Many people would like to understand Electronic And Mechanic, but they don’t always know how they should go about it. You have found the information you require to get going, right here in this article. Begin using the information that you have learned about Electronic And Mechanic from this article.

Tire Care Tips

Tire Care

The role of the tire is very vital for every vehicle. tires to be the only component of the vehicle which is in contact with the track surface (asphalt). That requires special care. Ban also can determine your comfort driving. What should we do to take care of the tires?

If the tire is not treated properly, it will make the tire life is getting shorter. Agus Sarsito, Technical Service Department  Bridgestone Tire Corporation has special tips for taking care of the tires to be more durable and enjoy your ride.



1. Make sure the tires are used in accordance with the wheels on the vehicle.

2. Pay attention to the wind pressure. Because the wind pressure is the life of the car and the wheel itself. Checking tire pressure can be performed at least once a month.

3. The condition of the used tires must often seen her condition, if there is a defect in the tire.

4. Do not let the tire over the edge at the tire wear on the line. Under such circumstances the tire can not throw water well and hydroplaning effects occur (front tire is difficult to control the current passing through puddles). Categorized tire has a bowel movement at 50 liters per second in speed of 60 miles per hour.

5. Should do balancing and tire spooring routinely to those skilled in the tire rotates. If the tires are not balanced, it can damage other components such as suspension laterol rod and ball joint. It is also to pay attention to the level of wheel wear. It was done in order to reduce cabin noise levels.

6. If possible, use nitrogen wind to make it more durable tire life. Because the boiling point of nitrogen is very low so the tires are not easy to heat. In comparison, when the wind always with nitrogen through the streets in a hot area, the usual wind increased wind pressure 5 psi, while the nitrogen remained normal wind.

7. These also determine the wear rate of the tire. Tires are passing character smooth asphalt or road, would make a better level of tire wear. Because when the tires often clash, will cause bumps that make the relatively short life of the tire.

Suspension System

Suspension System Knowledge

Suspension is a collection of individual components serves to reduce shock, vibration that occurs in the vehicle due to uneven road surface which can enhance driving comfort and safety. suspension location in between the body (skeleton) with wheels. There are two main types of suspension are:
The suspension system dependent or axle suspension system
Independent suspension system or free suspension system.

Suspension system dependent

The wheels in the axle shaft connected by stiff (rigid), the rigid shaft is connected to the body with the use of springs, shock absorbers and control arm (control arm)
Initially all vehicles using this system. Until now the majority of heavy vehicles such as trucks, still use this system, while commercial vehicles generally use this system on the rear wheels.

Independent suspension system

Between the wheels in one axis are not directly connected, each wheel (left and right wheels) is connected to the body or frame to the suspension arm (suspension arm), springs and shock absorbers. The shaking or vibration in one of the wheels does not affect the other wheel.
Generally passenger vehicles using this system at all wheel axles, while commercial vehicles generally use this system on the front wheel while the rear axle suspension system uses dependent on the rear axle. MacPherson strut type and double-wishbone included in these types of systems.

The main components


Spring
With the elastic properties of the spring, the spring serves to receive a wheel vibration or shock as a result of road conditions in order for the vibration or shaking of the wheel is not menyalur to the body or frame of the vehicle.

Some type of spring used in the suspension system:
Screw spring (coil spring), also known as the 'coil', the type used is a spring or spring-loaded screw threaded tap to accept the compressive load.

Leaf spring
Commonly used on heavy or commercial vehicles with a suspension system dependent.

Torsion spring or a spring known as torsion bars (torsion bar spring), commonly used on vehicles with a load is not too heavy.

Shock absorber
Main article for this section are:
Shock absorber
Shock absorbers serve to dampen shock loads or shock or vibration spring is received.

Suspension arm
Suspension arm or suspension arm is only found in the dependent suspension system, mounted on the body or frame of the vehicle, the framework serves to hold the wheels of the vehicle. Complex movement of the wheels to move in sync with the movement of the suspension arms are on the binding arm ball joint suspension with the wheel frame.

EFI System

Fuel Injection System

Description Types of injection machine
Electronic Petrol Injection (EPI) or also called Eletronic Fuel Injection (EFI) is a fuel injection control technology developed at this time to replace the gasoline engine carburetor. Generally the system EPI / EFI divided into two types:
  • Based on the number injectornya.
  • Based injectornya placement.
  • Based on the number of EPI or EFI engine injector consists of:
  • Single Point Injection. (SPI)

Single Point Injection (SPI) or so-called Throttle Body Injection (TBI) or Central Fuel Injection System: which only use one for a few Cylinder Fuel Injector. Injector fitted before the suction channel is above the throttle valve. The principle works the injectors supplying fuel for the purpose some cylinders at once. Construction of single-point injection can be seen in the picture.



Multi Point Fuel Injection (MPI) is also called port fuel injection (PFI), put over the hole injector suction (intake port). Each cylinder has one injector. So, when it consisted of a 4-cylinder engine means that there are 4 injectors which supply the gasoline. Construction of multi-point fuel injection can be seen in the picture below.



MPI injection technology has advantages compared with SPI include:
1). The distribution of air-fuel mixture is uniform for each cylinder.
2). Response to changes in throttle position even faster.
3). More accurate in regulating the amount of fuel injected according to operating conditions.
Thus, the better the engine performance, reduced emissions and fuel consumption more efficient. Instead SPI system is simpler, because it tends to uneven distribution of air-fuel mixture is strongly influenced by the design of the suction channel.

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) which injectors are in the combustion chamber, so gasoline is sprayed directly into the combustion chamber without passing through the Intake Valve. The technology is still expensive, because the Fuel Injector Nozzle material must withstand the high temperatures in the combustion chamber.
To further clarify the position of the three types of injector placement position, can be seen in the image below.


Based injectornya placement.
Indirect Injection. That system spraying fuel into the intake manifold as used in the injection system of gasoline engine, gasoline is not sprayed directly into the combustion chamber


Direct Injection. That system spraying fuel directly into the combustion chamber. Injectornya located in the combustion chamber, so gasoline is sprayed directly into the combustion chamber without passing through the Intake Valve. The technology is still expensive, because the Fuel Injector Nozzle material must withstand the high temperatures in the combustion chamber. Construction direct injection can be seen in the picture


EPI / EFI Construction 
Basic construction
In general, the basic construction EPI / EFI divided into three systems, namely:

  • The system controls the intake air (Air Induction System)
  • The distribution of the fuel system (Fuel Delivery System)
  • Eletronic Control System (Eletronic Control System).

If seen from the above three control systems based on relationships with one another is a series of interrelated systems, each system has its own function. To further clarify each system with each component, will be explained further.



Intake air control system
Based on the engine intake air control system or EFI EPI can be classified into two types, namely:

Sistem D or D-Jetronic EFI (from the German "DRUCK" means pressure, the system that controls the amount of air entering the intake manifold is measured by the size of the vacuum. Computer input the amount of air that goes into the air intake chamber of sensor mounted in the intake manifold or the identification of the source of intake manifold vacuum. Input is used as basis injecting inputs from the engine speed. as the engine uses intake air sensor based on vacuum, the vacuum in the Intek changes that will transform the voltage delivered by the sensor to the Electronic Control Module (ECM). the ECM then sends a voltage of 5 volts as the input sensor.
D-Jetronik basic principles can be seen in the picture below.



Sensor input is at 5 volts, the voltage produced (sensor output) due to changes in vacuum varies between 0-5 volts.
L-EFI system or L-Jetronic (German for "AIR" which means the air, the system that controls the amount of air entering the intake manifold is measured by the amount of air flow velocity. Computer input the amount of air that goes into the air intake chamber of the sensor installed in the intake manifold or the identification of the source of air at the intake manifold outflows. Input is used as basis injecting inputs from the engine speed.
Figure shows the basic principle of L-Jetronic.



On machines that use the sensor in air by an air flow rate, the airspeed will swipe heat resistor will change the prisoners. Changes in the resistivity resistor will result in a change in voltage produced (sensor output). The sensor input voltage of 12 volts and an exit varies between 0-5 volts, which is used as the basis for calculating the amount of ECM incoming air.

Fuel distribution system
The fuel (petrol) is suppressed by a gas station works electrically controlled by the ECM, through the fuel filter (fuel filter) is applied to the operation of the injectors is controlled by the ECM. Fuel is sprayed when the valve on the injector open intermittently. Because the pressure in the pipe divider was made permanent by the presence of the fuel pressure regulator, then the amount of gasoline that dismprotkan depending on the length of the injector open.
Fuel distribution systems (fuel Delivery System) can be seen in picture



The length of time the fuel injection is generally divided into three systems:

  • Intermittently
  • What are governed by time
  • Continues


In the intermittent system, open and closing of the injectors do not see the intake valve working condition. At this injection system may be spraying fuel into the engine when the intake valve is open or closed. Intermittent injection system also called modulation injection system.
At timed injection system, the fuel really is aerosolized into the machine before or when the intake valve opens. Spraying gas in the system is always the intake valve working condition.
In the continuous system, the fuel is sprayed into the engine every time (continuously) for rotating machinery. Controlling the ratio of air-fuel mixture by adding or reducing the pressure on the injector. This way it will increase or decrease the fuel out of the injectors.

system control
In the development of the injection control system includes:

  • mechanical control system
  • The hydraulic-mechanical control system
  • The electronic control system.
  • Mechanical control systems. Control of mechanical injection does not require the ECM to control the injector opening.



Working principle:
The sensor will detect the license plate number of the intake air, if the air intake a little, then the movement of the sensor is also small, and if it increases the amount of air entering the motion sensor will move further and further so enlarged. Movement sensor plate is connected to a plunger that will determine the size of the fuel line to the injector.

Hydraulic-mechanical control systems. Injection system with a hydraulic-mechanical control using the mixture control unit (air intake sensor and fuel distributor unit) to operate the injectors. Inlet air flow sensor for this type of injection system uses electronic control.

Working principle:
Movement of the sensor plate is connected with the air intake which is placed at the center plunger gasoline distributors. When increasing the amount of air entering the sensor plate will be pushed up, this movement will push the plunger. The plunger movement will determine the extent of fuel to be supplied to the injector.



The electronic control system.
In the electronic control system using an engine control module (ECM) that serves as a central control system, gets input from the two main sensor is a sensor and the amount of air entering the engine rotation sensor that will be used to determine the basic injection volume. In addition to the above two sensors are other sensors that the ECM serves as input to correct for the amount of fuel injectors sprayed.



Correction system
Basic fuel injection engine EPI / EFI depends on two main sensor is a sensor air intake and engine rotation sensor. To enhance the magnitude of the injection time, it would require another sensor as a supporter for correcting sensor refinement ratio of air and fuel mixture (air fuel ratio) according to the working conditions of the engine. The amount of fuel (gasoline) is sprayed should be proportional to the amount of air enters the cylinder (AFR). The more air into the cylinder, the gas must be more to be sprayed. Sebalikya Similarly, the less air coming in, the volume of gas that is sprayed also the less.



For example, when the machine is turned on in a state still cold, the ECM requires inputs from ECT sensor (engine cooling temperature) to enrich the mixture so that the machine is turned on.

How To Claim Car Insurance

Claim The Car Insurance

The claim is an effort to seek redress policyholder to the insurance company because of an accident or theft of the insured car. What is the procedure of filing a claim to be made by the policyholder?

Contacting the insurance company

If an accident or your car may is stolen, you must do first is to contact the insurance company concerned within 3 x 24 hours (can be by phone, SMS, email, or come directly to the company). This is to avoid the rejection of your car insurance claim because they reason passing of a predetermined time period.

Providing photographic evidence

photograph at the time of the accident and the car still can to walk, you should take the car to a repair shop the insurance company partners. If your car is get heavily broke, preferably a photo or document in advance. This photo will be evidence that it actually had an accident.

Fill out the form

You also have to fill out a form provided by the insurance company. This form as one complete document to the success of your claim.

Provide clear information

The next thing you should do is to provide information about the sequence of events on the insurer in good faith. This would be considered an insurance company if your claim is rejected (because it provides information that is fictitious) or received (as it provides information that makes sense).

Preparing documents

You must also complete the documents offered by insurance companies. As these documents are as follows:

documents accident.

  • The completed claim form. The new claims process will be the insurance company, if the policyholder has to fill the claim form completely.
  • Copy of car insurance policy. This document to prove that he was indeed a customer of the insurance company. In addition, to determine whether the premium has been paid according to the agreement or not.
  • Copy of driver's license. This document to determine whether or not he was allowed by the police for driving a car.
  • Copy of vehicle registration. It also became evident that his car or not.
  • A certificate from the police. This document is also a consideration to indemnify the company or not.
Documents third party liability (if any third party)
  • Notice of claim for damages from third parties. This document makes a guarantee that it is the policyholder's car resulting in damage to a third party.
  • Statement of no insurance. Usually there are some insurance companies will not compensate third parties have car insurance. Therefore, this document is a necessary condition.
  • Copy of driver's license, ID card and vehicle registration. Card to ensure that the rider is already having a license from the police. ID cards and vehicle registration is evidence that the car was his.
  • A letter from the police. This letter proves that indeed the time and place is no accident to the car.

Car Engine Construction

Car Engine Construction

Construction Machinery engine car or anatomical arrangement of the engine components are sorted and parsed in detail. The car's engine is very diverse there are engines that use gasoline as fuel or gasoline engine and the machine called that uses diesel as fuel or diesel engines is called, and of course the construction of a car engine that uses gasoline and diesel is slightly different. Where diesels have injectors nozle, while the gasoline engine is not. Let's observe Construction Car Engine below.


Starting the top cover or lid of course is a function of covering the engine components such as rocker arm, pushrod and valve.
The second is the construction of a car engine that is covered by the top of the engine cover or hood.


Pictured above is a component that fills the top of the engine construction such Rocker Arm, Pushrod, valves and camshaft or Nokens As. The function of all of the above components are:

  • Rocker Arm function or trigger pressure is a pressure valve that opens and closes.
  • Pushrod function is as a driving rocker arm.
  • Camshaft Follower is a bridging function and Camshaft pushrod or Nokens As.
  • Camshaft and camshaft function is to regulate the time of closing and opening the valve or valve or valves.
  • Valve function is to enter and exit the fuel that was in process at the carburetor. and the valve has two parts, namely the intake valve and exhaust valve.
The next section is section mesing blocks and components that work in the engine block.




Engine block is the place to cylinder, cooling channels, and pistons. Engine block is also home to the piston do its job, namely:

Intake Step
is the step where the current intake valve opens and the piston moves down from TDC to BDC or suck the fuel and air mixture from the carburetor (gasoline engine) or just air (in a diesel engine / EFI engine)

Compression Step
when both valves are closed and the piston moves upward from BDC to TDC or compress the mixture of air and fuel (gasoline engine), only air (diesel engine / EFI engine)

Work Step
The second is when the valve is closed, the piston almost to the spark plugs sparks TDC (diesel engines: diesel fuel injector mengkabutkan) resulting in an explosion that resulted in the piston pushed to the BDC.

Exhaust Step
is wasted when the valve piston moves to TDC pushing back the remaining combustion gases to the exhaust valve.

For More Clearly when the piston perform the steps as above we observe the image below.


And the last component in the construction of a car engine is Carter oil or oil pan that had a function as a reservoir of oil to lubricate all components.

Likewise Car Engine Construction that can be delivered, Hopefully Helpful. Thank's

How To Tune-up Gasoline Engine

How To Tune-Up Gasoline Engine

Tune - Up is an activity check or replacement of engine components regularly. Tune-Up is one of the important machine maintenance, Tune-Up is also required to do regular and scheduled, so the engine properly maintained according to the guide book is given when you purchase a vehicle, either a gasoline-powered car or a diesel engine. Here is how to tune-up gasoline engine.

GASOLINE ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCESS

1. Check the Radiator Water

Before the tune-up started, first check the radiator water. Open the radiator cap by turning the radiator cap counter-clockwise, then see the water in the radiator of the water intake hole radiator. If the volume of the radiator water or concentrated water color, add or replace with clean water.
The volume of water in the radiator ketinggin said enough when the water reaches the upper limit cap radiator.dilarang start the engine if the radiator water is less, because, the machine will be extremely hot.
when checking the water radiator, also check the quality of the water from the radiator. If the water is dirty, it should be replaced with water baru.Apabila oily water radiators, oil leaks can occur to the engine cooling system. Check also the possibility of a water leak radiator to check whether there is any water seepage out of the radiator.

2. Checking the Engine Oil

After checking the radiator water quality and quantity, the next step is to check the engine oil. If the engine oil is checked after a tune-up, the result of the tune-up will not be satisfactory, because the condition of the engine oil temperature affect the engine performance. In addition, the engine oil also affects the sound of the engine. If the engine oil is dirty, dilute, or less, the sound of the engine will be noisy. This will affect the round stationary and idle the engine.
Examination of the engine oil includes oil contents and oil quality. The volume of oil must be within the limits specified minimum, if less oil, add the oil quality is the same. Preferably, the oil is added or removed from the same brand, in order to avoid chemical reactions that could be detrimental to the working conditions and the engine.

3. Conditions Visual Machines

After checking the engine oil, do not start the engine. carefully check the real condition of the machine. eyes assure you that the engine is really safe to be turned on.
Check the condition of the engine significantly reduces the risk of accidents, including measures that must be implemented before the tune-up. Machine is said to be ready to turn on if the check engine shows the following result.

No wires are pinched.
There is no spark plug wires loose.
Installation of the spark plug wires were neatly conform to the standard.
There is no any equipment located at the engine.
Baud and nut installed neatly.
Do not leak the gas in the engine.
No cable is short-circuited.
Engine oil and radiator water accordingly.


4. Turning Machines

When the machine is ready to be turned on and be safe from the risk of danger, turn on the machine in a stationary lap, after a minute then add the round if I have to. Do not start the engine directly on high idle, because the lubricant has not reached all parts of the engine and to prevent wear and tear on engine parts. For analysis of damage to the machine, as long as the engine starts, consider some of the following.

sound Machine

The sound can come out when the machine is turned on the machine as follows.

Burst as a result of burning
burst due to the combustion step gasoline and diesel fuel, causing a distinctive sound. In normal combustion engine, the sound letupannya average. In abnormal combustion engine, letupannya uneven sound, the beat is not usually occur every second. If the sound is not routed through the exhaust, it will sound very rough and noisy.
The sound of a gasoline engine is more refined than the diesel engine or diesel.

vibration Components
Knowing the characteristics of the sound of the various machines will facilitate in determining troubleshoot engine damage. Sound caused by the vibration of machine parts is abnormal sound. Vibration may occur because the baud or nut that is not attached to the neat, cracked parts, or damaged. Sound - the sound of the engine vibration caused quite different from the sound generated fuel combustion.

friction

Friction machine parts that are not lubricated with oil, could result in an uncomfortable sound. Sound caused by friction can occur on the gas pedal wire carburetors that are not lubricated with neat, piston to cylinder wall friction, or friction in the bearing.

The rate of gas

The rate of leaking gas can cause abnormal sounds, such as leaks in the inlet gas in the cylinder (intake manifold). The sound in the form of loud noise.
Knock (knocking)
The sound is caused by the friction of two components of the machine hard enough, usually occurs in the following areas.

Slit valve that is too large.
Puli crank bearing loose.
Piston Crash.
Bearing piston loose.
As camshaft shaft loose.
Sprinkling Flowers Fire
High voltage electrical spark could cause a distinctive sound. The voice can sound like a lizard. The cause electrical sparks are leakage currents or shorting.

Gas pressure

The sound is caused by the abnormal gas pressure is almost equal to the leak rate of inlet gas. Gas leaks can be caused by a gasket that is less neat. The sound of the engine to listen carefully for the cause of an abnormality of the machine. Therefore, compare the sound of the engine before and after the tune-up done.

b. vibration Machine

Observe vibration during engine life in stationary rotation. The machine that normally does not have the harsh vibration. When examined, when the machine is turned on, the body does not sway unless the engine spark plugs wires swaying slightly. If a bit harsh engine vibration, there is a problem in combustion processes or parts of its parts. Hard and rough vibration can be caused by the following.

Compression is not the same in every cylinder.
Compression is not normal if the above standards.
Burning on one cylinder abnormal.
One of the spark plugs can not electricity.
One of the spark plug wires are not neat.
Installation of ignition by the spark plug wires are not.
There are parts that gojlag-bolt or loose bolts.


c. Exhaust fumes

Once the engine noise and vibration research, subsequent observe carefully the form and color of the rest of the combustion fumes out through the exhaust. The smoke that comes out through the exhaust are the traits of whether or not the fuel combustion process of the engine.
There are four different colors of exhaust fumes that can be used as a reference whether or not the combustion process in the engine, among others:


Color Smoke Black

Color and dense black smoke in diesel engines is something that is commonplace. However, the color of black smoke on the gasoline engine is a sign of abnormal combustion because of too much gas in a mixture of air and gasoline. Reasonable size that is used as a distinguishing color to say black smoke was a smoke machine or normal under normal conditions.

White Smoke Color

Smoke machine 2 reasonable not white. Unlike the 4 stroke engine, 4 stroke engine when the smoke is white it may have damage or problems on the machine. The white color due to the smoke from burning oil. In the 2-stroke engine, the oil is burned with gasoline. But in the 4 stroke engine, the oil does not burn, unless there is an oil leak from the oil chamber to the combustion chamber.

Smoke Not Colored or no wind

Smoke is good 4 stroke engine is the only tangible smoke in the wind if felt by the hand. Being smoke like this indicates normal fuel mixture, no excess gas, is not contaminated with oil, gasoline and no less.

Exhaust fumes issuing such granular charcoal

Soot in the smoke machine or black granules, both 2-stroke engine or 4 stroke, due to the content of petroleum compounds in the fuel. If the smoke generated emit soot, definitely abnormal engine noise and black spark plug electrodes.

The execution sequence Tune-Up


Having researched the problem machine, tune up work can begin. The execution of a tune up to be sequential and carefully. That is, in order to avoid repetition of work because of a service specific part affects the other parts.

a. Air Filter
b. Platinum Checking carefully and can also re sets
c. Spark Plug Wires
d. cover Distributors
e. Accu
f. plug
g. Valve Gap Setting
h. Positive Crank Case Ventilation
i. When Ignition
j. Idle Rotation
k. fan belt

After turning on Machine Tune-Up

After the tune-up is complete and the machine is turned on, pay attention to all parts of the engine is mounted in place correctly or not. If all the parts are installed correctly, start the engine at stationary rotation of a few minutes. During stationary rotating machinery, listen to the sound normal, increase the engine's rotation slowly as he noticed the engine noise, wobble, and the exhaust fumes. If you are sure there are no problems or to abnormalan on the machine, then tune-up has been completed.

Similarly Tips on How to Tune-Up gasoline engine. You can customize whether you want to do Tune-up by way of entering the garage or doing a tune-up gasoline engine alone if you can and no tools. May be useful. Best Regard

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